In the Blank template, most of the work is done inside the
Game class, which is the starting point for the application. However, in the Rolling Ball template we have used a different approach to create the behavior.
Game class is now only used to register if the ESC-key is pressed (so that the application can be closed). Most of the logic is moved to the C# assets that can be accessed from the Asset Browser in the Sandbox, with most of the heavy lifting happening in the Player class which is an EntityComponent. Since the Player is an EntityComponent, it can be added to an Entity in the Sandbox. This is achieved by pressing Components in the Create Object window and then dragging the Player (new components will be in the General category by default) into your scene. If you already have an Entity ready for the player, you can also select the Entity and use the Add Component button in the properties window to add the Player-component to the Entity.
Once instantiated, the Player class will set its visuals and physicalize itself. The visuals are handled by the SetPlayerModel method, which calls LoadGeometry and LoadMaterial with the values that are set according to the PlayerGeometryUrl and PlayerMaterialUrl. Once the visuals are rendered, it will Physicalize itself by calling the PrepareRigidbody method where it will set the Mass of the entity and set the physicalization type to Rigid. Rigid means the object is solid and can move around. By setting it to rigid the Player is able to move around and have collisions with other physicalized objects. If the Mass is changed in the Sandbox or during runtime it will run PrepareRigidbody again to update the Mass of the PhysicsEntity. For objects that shouldn't move around, the physicalization type should be set to Static.
The Player receives its update calls in OnUpdate, which is called every frame. The EntityComponent has several virtual methods that can be overridden, such as OnCollision, OnEditorGameModeChange and OnTransformChanged.
On each frame, the player's movement is handled by the UpdateMovement method. First, the user-input is gathered through the Input class. Next the forward direction of the camera is retrieved and transformed (so it will not point up or down). After the forward is calculated, the correct direction of the camera can be calculated using Vector3.Cross in combination with the world's up direction. Once both the forward and the correct direction of the camera have been calculated, they can be used to add or subtract from the impulse direction (depending on the input that was retrieved earlier). Finally, the impulse direction is multiplied with the FrameTime to make it framerate independent and the impulse is set to the PhysicalEntity's Impulse property.
After updating the position of the Player it will also update the camera's position. This is handled by the PlayerView class which is explained in more detail in the PlayerView chapter.
The PlayerView class is responsible for moving the camera to the correct position. However, because the PlayerView is not an EntityComponent it needs to receive its update calls from the Player manually. Furthermore, the PlayerView also uses the Camera class to calculate and modify the camera position in a scene. It starts by getting the camera's rotation as yaw, pitch and roll values (x, y, and z axes). The yaw and pitch rotations are changed based on the mouse movement, while the roll rotation is completely removed. The angles are then set back to the rotation of the Camera. Finally, the forward direction of the Quaternion is multiplied with the ViewDistance and subtracted from the player's position to set the camera in the correct position.
Some interesting things to note regarding the PlayerView class;
- As it is not an EntityComponent it is unable to make use of the EntityPropertyAttribute.
- As a result of 1. a decision was made to store the various properties that the PlayerView uses in the Player instead. This way settings can still be fine-tuned in the Sandbox.
The Player class has several properties that can be adjusted in the Sandbox. This is done by adding the EntityPropertyAttribute to the properties.
In the template the following properties are already exposed.
Mass- Mass of the Player entity in kg.
MoveImpulseStrength- Strength of the per-frame impulse when holding inputs.
RotationSpeedYaw- Speed at which the Player rotates the camera yaw.
RotationSpeedPitch- Speed at which the Player rotates the camera pitch.
RotationLimitsMinPitch- Minimum limit to the camera pitch.
RotationLimitsMaxPitch- Maximum limit to the camera pitch.
ViewDistance- Determines the distance between the Player and camera.
All of these properties are float properties, but the EntityPropertyAttribute can be used to expose a wide variety of types. By default it will assume the property's type is a primitive type (
bool). By changing the first parameter in the EntityProperty you can adjust how the value is represented in the Sandbox. For example, if you want to also expose the PlayerGeometryUrl you could do it by using the default EntityPropertyType.Primitive, but you can also choose to change it to EntityPropertyType.Geometry. This will still create a text field, but it also gives you the option to open a file-browser to select a file to which the property should refer. For the PlayerGeometryUrl this will look like the following code.